Prophet Muhammad صلى الله عليه وسلم
-Some selected verses from the Noble Qur'an about his Life, Status, Morals and Manners
On one occasion when Lady Aisha, the truthful (God be pleased with her) was asked about the morals and manners of the Holy Prophet (صلى الله عليه وسلم.), she replied: "His morals are the Qur'an." This meant that the Holy Prophet's actions and sayings were a practical commentary of the Holy Qur'an, or, in other words, the Holy Prophet was the embodiment of action based upon the Holy Qur'an.
HIS EXALTED STATUS
1. He is Nur (Sacred Light)
O people of the Scripture! Indeed Our (Prophetic) Messenger has come to you, expounding to you much of that which you used to hide in the Scripture, and forgiving much. Undoubtedly, there has come to you light from Allah and a clear Scripture. (5:15)
Indeed, Allah and His angels shower blessings on the Prophet. O you who believe! Ask blessings on him and salute him with a worthy salutation. (33:56)
And We have sent you not except as a mercy for all the worlds. (21:107)
And those who believe and do good works and believe in that which is revealed to Muhammad, and it is the truth from their Lord, He removes from them their ill-deeds and improves their state. (47:2)
And exalted for you your Zikr (remembrance) (94:4)
Then he drew near, then he came closer
Till he was (distant) two bows' length or even nearer. (53:8-9)
And some part of the night offer Tahajjud (salah), an additional prayer for you. Soon will your Lord raise you to a Station of Praise. (17:79)
THE BELOVED OF ALLAH
Say (O beloved Prophet, to mankind): If you love Allah, then follow me; Allah will love you and forgive you your sins, and Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. (3:31)
Ta Ha. (20:1)
Ya Seen. (36:1)
O you wrapped up in your raiment. (73:1)
O you enveloped in your cloak. (74:1)
And know that among you is Allah's (Prophetic) Messenger; were he to follow your wishes in many a matter, you would surely fall into trouble, but Allah has endeared the faith to you and has adorned it in your hearts, and he has made hateful to you unbelief and transgression and disobedience; such are those who are rightly guided. (49:7)
Assuredly, there has come to you a (Prophetic) Messenger from among yourselves, grievous to him is that you are overburdened, full of concern for you, for the believers (he is) most kind, merciful. (9:128)
O Prophet! Indeed We have sent you as a beholder (witness) and a bearer of glad tidings and a warner. And as a summoner to Allah by His permission, and as an illuminating light. And give glad tidings to the believers that they will have great bounty from Allah. (33: 45-47)
But for the Grace of Allah upon you (O beloved Prophet), and His Mercy, a party of them had resolved to mislead you, but they will mislead only themselves and they will not hurt you at all. And Allah has sent down to you the Scripture and the Wisdom, and has taught you what you did not know, and the Grace of Allah toward you has been very great. (4:113)
Certainly, Allah has shown a special favour to the believers by raising among them a (Prophetic) Messenger from among themselves who recites to them His revelations, and purifies them, and teaches them the Scripture and the Wisdom, although before (he came to them) they were in manifest error. (3:164)
And Allah would not punish them while you are in their midst, and Allah will not punish them while they seek forgiveness. (8:33)
Surely, those who swear allegiance to you (O beloved Prophet), swear allegiance to Allah. The hand of Allah is over their hands. So whoever breaks his oath, breaks it only to his own harm; and whoever fulfils his covenant which he has made with Allah, then on him will He bestow immense reward. (48:10)
HE RECEIVED THE HOLY QUR'AN
And certainly, We have given you seven of the oft-repeated (verses) and the Grand Qur'an. (15:87)
Nor does he speak of (his own) desire.
It is naught but revelation that is revealed. (53:3-4)
And indeed, this (Qur'an) is a revelation from the Lord of the worlds,
Which the Trusted Spirit has descended with,
Upon your heart, that you may warn,
In clear Arabic language,
And indeed, it is in the Scriptures of the ancients.
And is it not a sign for them that the learned ones of the Israelites know it? (26:192-197)
Recite: In the name of your Lord Who created. (96:1)
He is (the One) Who has raised among the unlettered ones a (Prophetic) Messenger from among themselves who recites to them His revelations and purifies them, and teaches them the Scripture and the Wisdom, although before that, they were indeed in manifest error. (62:2)
AMONG THE PROPHETS 'Alayhimussalam
Muhammad is not the father of any of your men, but he is the (Prophetic) Messenger of Allah and the Last of the Prophets; and Allah has full knowledge of all things. (33:40)
And when We took from the Prophets their Covenant, and from you (O beloved Prophet) and from Nuh and Ibrahim and Musa and Isa son of Maryam, and We took from them a firm covenant. (33:7)
Surely, We have revealed (the revelation) to you (O beloved Prophet) as We revealed to Nuh, and the Prophets after him, and We revealed to Ibrahim and Ismail and Is'haq and Ya'qub and the tribes, and 'Isa and Ayyub and Yunus and Harun and Sulayman, and We gave Dawud the Psalms. (4:163)
Alif Lam Mim.
The Romans have been subdued,
In the nearby land, and they, after their defeat, shall overcome,
Within a few years. Allah's is the command in the former case and in the latter. And on that day the believers will rejoice,
With the help of Allah. He helps whom He will, and He is the Mighty, the Merciful.
(It is) the promise of Allah. Allah fails not His promise, but most of mankind know not. (30:1-6)
Undoubtedly, We have given you (O beloved Prophet) a clear victory. (48:1)
Certainly, Allah has proved true the true vision of His (Prophetic) Messenger. You shall indeed enter the Sacred Mosque, if Allah wishes, secure, (having your) heads shaved or hair cut short, not fearing. But He knows what you do not know, and He has granted you besides that, a victory near at hand. (48:27)
And (He will give you) another (blessing) which you love: help from Allah and a victory near at hand, so (O beloved Prophet) give glad tidings to the believers. (61:13)
Allah will not leave the believers in the condition in which you are till He separates the wicked from the good, nor will Allah let you know the unseen. But Allah chooses of His (Prophetic) Messengers whom He wishes, (to receive knowledge thereof). So believe in Allah and His (Prophetic) Messengers, and if you believe and ward off (evil), then yours will be a vast reward. (3:179)
Our Lord! And raise up in their midst a (Prophetic) Messenger from among them who shall recite to them Your revelations, and shall teach them the Scripture, and the Wisdom and shall purify them. Surely, You are the Mighty, the Wise. (2:129)
And when Isa son of Maryam said: O children of Israel! Indeed, I am the (Prophetic) Messenger of Allah to you, confirming that which was (revealed) before me in the Tawrat, and bringing good tidings of a (Prophetic) Messenger who comes after me, whose name is "the Praised One". Yet when he has come to them with clear proofs, they say: this is clear magic. (61:6)
And when Allah took from the Prophets their Covenant, (He said: Behold) that which I have given you of Scripture and Wisdom. Then comes to you a (Prophetic) Messenger, confirming that which is with you. You shall believe in him and you shall help him. He said: Do you agree, and will you take up My burden (which I lay upon you) in this (matter)? They said: We agree. He said: Then bear you witness, and I am with you among the witnesses (3:81)
Nay, he has come with the Truth, and he has confirmed the (Prophetic) Messengers (before him). (37:37)
SERVES ONLY ALLAH, THE GLORIFIED AND THE EXALTED
1. Worships only Allah Sub'hanahu wa Ta'ala (72:19-20)
2. Puts total trust in Allah Sub'hanahu wa Ta'ala (9:129)
3. Selflessly labours for Allah, asks for no reward (25:57) (42:23)
4. Rewarded by Allah (68:3) (108:1)
And when the devotee of Allah stood up in prayer to Him, they crowded on him, almost stifling.
Say (to them, O beloved Prophet): I pray to my Lord only, and ascribe to Him no partner. (72:19-20)
Then if they turn away (O beloved Prophet), say: Allah suffices me. None is to be worshipped except Him. In Him have I put my trust, and He is the Lord of the Supreme Throne. (9:129)
Say: I ask of you no reward for this, except that whoso will, may choose a way to His Lord. (25:57)
This is (the bounty) of which Allah gives the good news to His bondmen who believe and do good works. Say (O beloved Prophet to mankind): I ask of you no reward for it, save loving kindness for kinsfolk. And whoso earns any good deed, We add to its good for him. Surely, Allah is Forgiving, Appreciative. (42:23)
And certainly for you, there is an endless reward. (68:3)
Surely, We have given you abundance. (108:1)
HIS EXEMPLARY CHARACTER
Indeed in the (Prophetic) Messenger of Allah you have an excellent example for him whose hope is in Allah and the Last Day and remembers Allah much. (33:21)
And most surely, you have an exalted moral character. (68:4)
And when the believers saw the clans, they said: This is what Allah and His (Prophetic) Messenger promised us, and Allah and His (Prophetic) Messenger are true, and it only added to their faith and submission (to Allah). (33:22)
But, nay, by your Lord, they do not believe (in reality) until they make you judge of what is in dispute between them and find within themselves no dislike of that which you decide, and submit with full submission. (4:65)
The saying of the believers when summoned to Allah and His (Prophetic) Messenger that he may judge between them is only that they say: We hear and we obey. And they are the successful. (24:51)
Undoubtedly, it is indeed the Word (brought) by an honoured (Prophetic) Messenger. (69:40)
Keep to forgiveness (O beloved Prophet) and enjoin what is right, and turn away from the ignorant. (7:199)
O mankind! Surely, there has come to you a clear proof from your Lord and We have sent to you a clear light. (4:175)
And when you did go forth at day-break from your housefolk to assign to the believers their positions for the battle, and Allah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing. (3:121)
Say: Surely, as for me, my Lord has shown me the straight path, a right religion, the creed of Ibrahim, the upright, and he was not of the polytheists.
Say: Surely, my prayer and my sacrifice and my living and my dying are for Allah, Lord of the worlds.
He has no partner, and this am I commanded, and I am the first of those who submit (to Him). (6:161-163)
Say (O beloved Prophet): Truly, I am commanded to worship Allah, being sincere to Him in obedience.
And I am commanded to be the first of those who submit (to Him). (39:11-12)
O mankind! The (Prophetic) Messenger has come to you with the truth from your Lord. Then believe; (it is) better for you. But if you disbelieve, still, surely, to Allah belongs whatsoever is in the heavens and the earth, and Allah is ever Knower, Wise. (4:170)
Blessed is He Who has sent down to His bondman the Criterion (of right and wrong), that he may be a warner to the entire world. (25:1)
And We have not sent you (O beloved Prophet) except as a bringer of good tidings and a warner to all mankind; but most of the people do not know. (34:28)
O people of the Scripture! Indeed, Our (Prophetic) Messenger has come to you making clear to you (Our Commands) after a break of the (coming of the Prophetic) Messengers, lest you say: There came not to us any bearer of glad tidings or a warner (against evil), so indeed there has come to you a bearer of glad tidings and a warner, and Allah has power over all things. (5:19)
Say: This is my way. I invite towards Allah, I and those who follow me having inner-sight, and Glory be to Allah, and I am not of the idolaters. (12:108)
And when we inclined towards you (O beloved Prophet) certain of the jinn, listening to the Qur'an and, when they were in its presence, said: Be silent; then, when it was finished, they turned back to their people, warning.
They said: O our people! We have heard a Scripture which has been revealed after Musa, confirming that which was before it, guiding to the truth and to a right path.
O our people! respond to Allah's summoner and believe in Him, He will forgive you some of your sins and guard you from a painful punishment. (46:29-31)
And say: The truth has come and the falsehood has vanished away. Undoubtedly, the falsehood is ever bound to vanish. (17:81)
And he who has come with the truth and he who accepts it as the truth, such are those that guard (against evil). (39:33)
Say (O beloved Prophet): O mankind! I am the (Prophetic) Messenger of Allah to you all, of Him to Whom belongs the Kingdom of the heavens and the earth. None is to be worshipped except Him. He gives life and He causes death. So believe in Allah and His Messenger, the Prophet who can neither read nor write, who believes in Allah and in His Words, and follow him so that you may be guided. (7:158)
Those who follow the Messenger, the Prophet who can neither read nor write, whom they will find written down in the Tawrat and the Injil (which are) with them. He will enjoin on them that which is right and forbid them that which is wrong, and will make lawful for them all good things and prohibit for them only the foul; and he will relieve them of their burden and the fetters that were upon them. Then those who believe in him, and honour him and help him, and follow the light which is sent down with him; and they are the successful. (7:157)
O you who believe! Answer (the call of) Allah and the (Prophetic) Messenger when he calls you to that which gives you life, and know that Allah comes between the man and his own heart, and that to Him you shall be gathered. (8:24)
A (Prophetic) Messenger reciting to you the clear revelations of Allah so that he may bring forth those who believe and do good works from the darkness into the light. And whosoever believes in Allah and does good deeds, He will admit him into Gardens (of Paradise) underneath which streams flow, to abide therein forever. Allah has indeed made good provision for him. (65:11)
He is (the One) Who has sent His (Prophetic) Messenger with the guidance and the religion of truth, that He may cause it to prevail over all the religions. And Sufficient is Allah as Witness. (48:28)
HIS BLESSED HOUSEHOLD AND COMPANIONS, Radi Allahu 'Anhum
And stay in your houses. Display not yourselves (be not unveiled) like the displayment of the former Times of Ignorance. And establish regular prayer, and pay the poor-due, and obey Allah and His (Prophetic) Messenger. Allah's wish is but to keep away uncleanness far from you, O Folk of the Household, and to purify you a thorough purifying. (33:33)
Muhammad is the (Prophetic) Messenger of Allah. And those with him are hard against the disbelievers and merciful among themselves; you will see them bowing down, prostrating (in worship), seeking grace from Allah and His pleasure. Their marks are on their foreheads from the traces of prostrations. That is their description in the Tawrat and their description in the Injeel, like as sown corn that puts forth its sprout, then strengthens it so it becomes stout, then rises firm upon its stalk, delighting the sowers, so that it may enrage the disbelievers with (the sight of) them. Allah has promised to those of them who believe and do good works, forgiveness and immense reward. (48:29)
And those who believed and emigrated and fought in the way of Allah, and those who gave shelter and helped, they are the believers in truth. For them is pardon and an honourable provision. (8:74)
And the foremost, the first of the Emigrants and the Helpers, and those who followed them in goodness, Allah is well pleased with them and they are well pleased with Him, and He has prepared for them Gardens (in Paradise) underneath which rivers flow, wherein they will abide for ever. That is the supreme triumph. (9:100)
(It is) for the poor fugitives who have been driven out from their homes and their belongings, who seek grace from Allah and His pleasure and help Allah and His (Prophetic) Messenger. These are the truthful.
And those who had homes (in Madina) and the faith from before, love those who have fled to them, and find in their breasts no need for what they have been given, but prefer (the refugees) above themselves though they may be in desperate need (themselves). And whoso is saved from his own avarice, those are they who are the successful. (59:8-9)
Certainly, Allah was well pleased with the believers when they swore allegiance to you beneath the tree, and He knew what was in their hearts, so He sent down tranquillity on them, and has rewarded them with a near victory. (48:18)
BELIEVE, ASSIST, HONOUR, LOVE, RESPECT AND OBEY HIM
That you (mankind) may believe in Allah and His (Prophetic) Messenger, and may assist him, and honour him, and may glorify Him morning and evening. (48:9)
You should believe in Allah and His (Prophetic) Messenger, and struggle hard in Allah's way with your property and your persons; that is better for you, did you but know! (61:11)
Say: If your fathers, and your sons, and your brothers, and your wives, and your kinsfolk, and the wealth you have acquired, and merchandise for which you fear that there will be no sale, and dwellings you desire are dearer to you than Allah and His (Prophetic) Messenger and striving in His way: then wait till Allah brings His command to pass, and Allah does not guide the wrongdoing folk. (9:24)
The Prophet is closer to the believers than their own selves, and his wives are their mothers. And blood-relations are closer one to another in the Book of Allah than (other) believers and those who have fled (from Makkah), except that you do any good to your friends. This is inscribed in the Book. (33:6)
O you who believe! Be not forward in the presence of Allah and His (Prophetic) Messenger, and be in reverential awe of Allah. Surely, Allah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing.
O you who believe! Raise not your voices above the voice of the Prophet, nor speak aloud when speaking to him as you shout one to another, lest your deeds become vain while you perceive not.
Surely, those who subdue their voices in the presence of the (Prophetic) Messenger of Allah, those are they whose hearts Allah has tested for piety. For them is forgiveness and immense reward. (49:1-3)
And obey Allah and the (Prophetic) Messenger that you may obtain mercy. (3:132)
Those are the limits set by Allah, and whoso obeys Allah and His (Prophetic) Messenger, He will make him enter Gardens (in Paradise) underneath which rivers flow, to abide therein And.that is the great success. (4:13)
O you who believe! Obey Allah and obey the (Prophetic) Messenger and those in authority from amongst you, then if you have a dispute concerning any matter, refer it to Allah and the (Prophetic) Messenger if you believe in Allah and the Last Day. That is better and very good in the end. (4:59)
And whoso obeys Allah and the (Prophetic) Messenger, they are with those to whom Allah has shown favour, of the prophets and the truthful and the martyrs and the righteous, and the best of company are they! (4:69)
Whoever obeys the (Prophetic) Messenger, indeed obeys Allah; and whoever turns away, so We have not sent you as a keeper over them. (4:80)
And the believing men and the believing women, they are protecting friends one of another; they enjoin the right and forbid the wrong, and they establish regular prayers and they pay the poor-due, and they obey Allah and His (Prophetic) Messenger. As for these, Allah will have mercy on them. Undoubtedly, Allah is Mighty, Wise. (9:71)
And he who obeys Allah and His (Prophetic) Messenger, and fears Allah, and keeps his duty (to Him): then these it is that are the successful. (24:52)
Say: Obey Allah and obey the (Prophetic) Messenger. But if you turn away, he is only responsible for the duty placed on him and you for that place on you, and if you obey him, you will be rightly guided. And the responsibility of the (Prophetic) Messenger is only to convey (the message) clearly.(24:54)
And establish regular prayer and pay the poor-due and obey the (Prophetic) Messenger, that mercy may be shown to you. (24:56)
He (Allah) will set right your deeds for you and will forgive you your sins, and whosoever obeys Allah and His (Prophetic) Messenger, he has indeed gained a mighty success.(33:71)
The desert dwellers say: We believe. Say (to them O beloved Prophet): You believe not, but rather say "We submit", for the faith has not yet entered your hearts. But if you obey Allah and His (Prophetic) Messenger, He will not diminish anything of (the reward of) your deeds. Surely, Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. (49:14)
And obey Allah and obey the (Prophetic) Messenger; but if you turn away, then (know that) the duty of our (Prophetic) Messenger is only to convey (the message) clearly. (64:12)
And it befits not a believing man or a believing woman, when Allah and His (Prophetic) Messenger have decided a matter (for them), that they should (after that) claim any choice in their matter; and whoso disobeys Allah and His (Prophetic) Messenger, he surely goes astray in manifest error. (33:36)
Whatever Allah has given to His (Prophetic) Messenger from the people of the towns, it is for Allah and for the (Prophetic) Messenger, and for the near of kin and the orphans and the needy and the wayfarer, so that it may not (merely) make a circuit between the wealthy among you, and whatever the (Prophetic) Messenger gives you, take it and whatever he forbids you, abstain (from it), and fear Allah; surely Allah is severe in retributing (evil). (59:7)
O you who believe! Be in reverential awe of Allah and believe in His (Prophetic) Messenger. He will give you twofold of His mercy and will appoint for you a light wherein you shall walk, and will forgive you, and Allah is Forgiving, Merciful. (57:28)
WAGED JIHAD AMIDST PERSECUTION
And when those who disbelieve plotted against you (O beloved Prophet) to confine you, or to kill you or to drive you away; and they plan, but Allah (also) had arranged a plan; and Allah is the best of planners. (8:30)
Permission (to fight) is given to those against whom war is made because they are oppressed; and Allah is indeed Able to help them;
Those who have been driven from their homes unjustly, only because they said: Our Lord is Allah, and had it not been for Allah's repelling some men by means of others, then cloisters and churches and synagogues and mosques, wherein the name of Allah is much remembered, would assuredly have been pulled down. And undoubtedly, Allah will help him who helps His cause. Surely, Allah is Most Strong, Almighty. (22:39-40)
So fight (O beloved Prophet) in the way of Allah. You are not taxed (with the responsibility of anyone) except for yourself, and urge on the believers; maybe Allah will restrain the fierceness of those who disbelieve. And Allah is strongest in might and strongest in punishing. (4:84)
And when you (O beloved Prophet) are among them, then lead them in prayer; let only a party of them stand with you (to worship) and let them take their arms. Then when they have performed their prostrations, let them fall to the rear and let another party come that has not worshipped and let them worship with you, and let them take their precautions and their arms. Those who disbelieve long for you to neglect your arms and your baggage that they may attack you once for all. And there is no blame on you to lay aside your arms, if rain impedes you or if you are sick. But take your precautions. Surely, Allah has prepared for the disbelievers degrading punishment. (4:102)
And if they incline to peace, then you also incline to it, and trust in Allah. Surely, He is the All-Hearing, the All-Knowing. (8:61)
O you who believe! Remember Allah's favour to you when there came against you forces, so We sent against them a strong wind and forces which you did not see, and Allah is Ever- Seeing what you do. (33:9)
When Allah's help and the victory come. (110:1)
And if you are in doubt concerning that which We have revealed to Our bondman, then produce a chapter like it, and call your witnesses besides Allah if you are truthful. (2:23)
Say: If the mankind and the jinn should combine together to produce the like of this Qur'an, they could not produce the like thereof though they were the helpers one of another. (17:88)
Then let them produce a discourse like it, if they are truthful. (52:34)
And when they hear what has been revealed to the (Prophetic) Messenger, you will see their eyes overflowing with tears because of their recognition of the truth. They say: Our Lord, we believe, then inscribe us as among the witnesses (of truth). (5:83)
Glorified be He Who carried His bondman by night from the Sacred Mosque to the al-Aqsa Mosque whose precincts We have blessed, so that We might show him of Our signs. Surely, He is the All-Hearing, the All-Seeing. (17:1)
Then he drew near, then he came closer
Till he was (distant) two bows' length or even nearer.
Now He revealed to His bondman whatever He revealed.
The heart lied not in what he saw.
Will you then dispute with him concerning what he saw?
And indeed he saw him in another descent
By the lote-tree of the utmost boundary,
Near to which is the Garden of Abode.
When that which enshrouds did enshroud the lote-tree
The sight turned not aside nor exceed the limit..
Certainly, he saw of the greatest signs of his Lord. (53:8-18)
If you help him not, indeed Allah helped him when those who disbelieve drove him forth, (with him was) the second of the two; when they were both in the cave, when he said to his companion: Grieve not, surely, Allah is with us. Then Allah caused His peace of reassurance to descend upon him and supported him with forces which you did not see, and made the word of those who disbelieved the lowest, while Allah's Word, that is the highest, and Allah is Mighty, Wise. (9:40)
And Allah had certainly assisted you at Badr, when you were weak. So fear Allah in order that you may be thankful.
When you said to the believers: Is it not sufficient for you that Your Lord should assist you with three thousand of the angels sent down?
Yes, if you remain patient and fear Allah, and they attack you suddenly, your Lord will help you with five thousand angels marked out (for your help). (3:123-125)
The Hour drew near and the moon was split (in two).
And if they see a sign, they turn away and say: (This is) perpetual magic. (54:1-2)
And, it is by the mercy of Allah that you were gentle with them (O beloved Prophet), for if you had been stern and fierce of heart they would have dispersed from around about you. So pardon them and ask forgiveness for them and consult with them upon the conduct of affairs. And when you are resolved, then put your trust in Allah. Surely, Allah loves those who trust. (3:159)
And We did not send any (Prophetic) Messenger but that he should be obeyed by the permission of Allah. And if, when they were unjust to themselves, they had but come to you and asked forgiveness of Allah, and the (Prophetic) Messenger had asked forgiveness for them, they would have found Allah Forgiving, Merciful. (4:64)
O Prophet! When the believing women come to you, taking oath of allegiance to you that they will ascribe nothing as partner to Allah, and will not steal and will not commit adultry and will not kill their children, and will not produce any calumny, forging it between their hands and feet (regarding birth), nor disobey you in what is good, then accept their allegiance and ask forgiveness for them from Allah. Surely, Allah is Forgiving, Merciful! (60:12)
They will have no power of intercession save him who has made a covenant with the Most Beneficent. (19:87)
On that Day no intercession avails except of him to whom the Most Beneficent has given permission and whose word He is pleased with. (20:109)
Realise the poor-due out of their wealth, to purify them and cleanse them therewith, and pray for them. Surely, your prayer is a solace for them. And Allah is All-Hearing, All-Knowing. (9:103)